Main Article Content


The aim of taking up this research was to explore the conceptual understanding of the term ‘citizenship’ among the students and teachers of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K); analyze how school education program plays a key role in the promotion of citizenship; and how conceptual understanding of “citizenship” help young students be responsible citizens. Keeping in view the identified needs, an exploratory study was conducted. A total of 512 students and 84 teachers from ten schools in five different districts of J&K were selected as sample of the study by using purposive sampling method. Data were collected through interviews, focus group discussions, classroom observations, and questionnaires. The findings of the study indicate that a clear majority of respondents have adopted, whether consciously or not, a legalist perspective of citizenship. The study also concluded that schools and school practitioners play a prominent role in bringing up citizens and the perception of citizenship among students starts from primary school, where students are given the opportunity to imbibe national morals, and knowledge to become responsible citizens. One central implication of the study is that by examining students’ ideas about citizenship, educators can better develop a curriculum aimed at deepening students’ understanding of their rights and responsibilities as citizens and hopefully can promote more active, informed civic participation.


Concept of Citizenship Citizenship Education Civic Virtue Rights and Duties

Article Details

How to Cite
Arora, P., & Ranjan Kumar Sahoo. (2022). A Study Of The Concept Of ‘Citizenship’ Among The Students And Teachers Of The State Of Jammu & Kashmir. MIER Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices, 12(2), 365–384.


  1. Acharya, A. (2012). Citizenship in a globalizing world. New Delhi: Pearson Education India.
  2. Alabaua, R. (2010). Primary school students’ conceptions of citizenship. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 2528-2532.
  3. Arif, B. (2017). Citizenship education at high schools in Australia: New South Wales. International Journal of Social Sciences and Educational Studies,4(1),32-39.
  4. Aristotle, H., & Rackham. (1990). Politics. Hackett Publishing Company. Arora, P. (2013). Need to prepare democratic citizens in India. Indian Journal of Youth Affairs, 17(2), 13-23.
  5. Arslan, S. (2016). Perceptions of 8th grade students in middle school towards citizenship values. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(4), 318-329.
  6. Chavez, A. (2016). Citizenship education in Ecuador: Perceptions of students and teachers. International Education Studies, 9(12), 206-218. 5539/ies.v9n12p206
  7. Creswell, J. W. (2015). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Uttar Pradesh: Pearson India Education Services Pvt. Ltd.
  8. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. Delhi: Aakor Books. Dhar, S. (1991). Jammu and kashmir. New Delhi: National Book Trust.
  9. Dusi, P., Steinbach, M., & Messetti, G. (2012). Citizenship education in multicultural society: Teachers’ practices. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 1410-1419.
  10. European Foundation for South Asian Studies. (2018). Hartals in Jammu and Kashmir; cause for social, political and economic instability. Retrieved from;-cause-for-social,-political-and-economic-instability/
  11. Geboers, E., Geijsel, F., Admiraal, W., & Dam, G. (2015). Citizenship orientations and knowledge in primary and secondary education. Social Psychology of Education, 18(4), 749-767.
  12. Kahne, J., & Sporte, S. (2008). Developing citizens: The impact of civic learning opportunities on students’ commitment to civic participation. American Educational Research Journal, 45(3), 738-766.
  13. Kincal, R. Y. (2004). Citizenship. Ankara: Nobel Publishing.
  14. Kymlicka, W. (2002). Contemporary political philosophy: An introduction. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  15. Malik, N. A., & Majid, A. (2016). Kashmir: In historical perspective.
  16. JPUHS, 29(2), 1-10. Retrieved from
  17. journal/HistoryPStudies/PDF-FILES/1-v29_2_16.pdf
  18. Marshall, T. H., & Bottomore, T. (1992). Citizenship and social class. Pluto Press.
  19. Mathe, N. E. H., & Elstad, E. (2018). Students’ perception of citizenship preparation in social studies: The role of instruction and students’ interests. Journal of Social Science Education, 17(3), 74-86.
  20. Mccowan, T. (2011). Rethinking citizenship education: A curriculum for participatory education. New Delhi: A&C Black.
  21. Mclaughlin, T. (1992). Citizenship, diversity and education: A philosophical perspective. Journal of Moral Education, 21(3), 235-250.
  22. O’brien, J. L., & Smith, J. M. (2011). Elementary education students’ perceptions of “Good” citizenship. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 2(1), 21-36. Retrieved from
  23. Osler, A. (2011). Teacher interpretations of citizenship education: National identity, cosmopolitan ideals, and political realities. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43(1), 1-24.
  24. Peterson, A., & Bentley, B. (2016). Education for citizenship in South Australian public schools: A pilot study of senior leader and teacher perceptions. The Curriculum Journal, 28(1), 105-122.
  25. Sarohe, S. (2018). The role of teacher education programmes. Economic & Political Weekly, 53(40), 27-32.
  26. Schofield, V. (2010). Kashmir in conflict. London: Tauris.
  27. Sigauke, A. T. (2013). Citizenship education in the social science subjects: An analysis of the teacher education curriculum for secondary schools. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(11).
  28. Snedden, C. (2015). Understanding kashmir and kashmiris. UK: Hurst & Co LTD.
  29. Torney-Purta, J., Lehmann, R., Oswald, H., & Schulz, W. (2001).
  30. Citizenship and education in twenty-eight countries: Civic knowledge and engagement at age fourteen. Retrieved from publications/study-reports/international-reports-iea-studies/citizenship-and-education-twenty-eight