Effect of Colour Usage and Dialogue Reading Practices in Solving the Visual and Auditory Perception Problems of Students with Dyslexia
Keywords:Dyslexia, Use of Colours, Peer Assessment, Dialogue Reading
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability in reading. It is the most prevalent learning disability. This study aims to reveal the effect of the use of colours, peer assessment and reading dialogues on the education of students with dyslexia. The study uses a technical collaborative action research method. Two male students diagnosed with dyslexia and studying in the second year of primary school were participants in the study. The study lasted for 12 weeks following the research plan. The students were required to read the chosen tales in Aesop’s Tales aloud. After reading the stories, the students also read selected dialogues in the elementary school course books determined by the Ministry of National Education. Two letters by which the students got confused were marked in two different colours in the first text. The colouring gradually reduced in the new text. There was no colouring in the last text. Results show that the use of colours was effective in reducing the confusion of letters. The students corrected their mistakes mutually through the peer assessment method. The students liked the reading activity and made fewer reading errors compared to other texts.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Murat Basar, Muhammet Sait Baran, Ahmet Goncu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The articles published in the MIER Journal of Educational Studies, Trends and Practics (MJESTP) are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
- Copyright on any open access article in the MIER Journal of Educational Studies, Trends and Practics (MJESTP) published by Model Institute of Education and Research (MIER) is retained by the author(s).
- Author(s) grant MIER a license to publish the article and identify himself/herself/themselves as the original publisher.
- Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.
- The Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 formalizes these and other terms and conditions of publishing articles.
Akyol, H. (2011). Turkish teaching methods. Pegem Academy Publishing.
Akyol, H. (2013). Teaching first reading and writing in turkish. Pegem Academy Publishing.
Akyol, H., & Kayabasi, Z. E. K. (2018). Improving the reading skills of a students with reading difficulties: An action research. Education and Science, 43(193). https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2018.7240
Akyol, H., & Sever, E. (2019). Reading and writing disability and an action research: A sample from second grade. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 34(3), 685-707. https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2018040667
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.
Barry, J. G., Yasin, I., & Bishop, D. V. M. (2007). Heritable risk impairments factors associated with language. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 6(1), 66- 76. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-183X.2006.00232.x
Basar, M., & Batur, Z. (2018). Examination of the students’ mistakes of oral reading. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(2), 181-189. https://doi.org/10.26822/iejee.2019248598
Basar, M., Batur, Z., & Karasu, M. (2014). The effect of time dependent reading aloud on comprehension. Milli Egitim Dergisi, 43(203), 5-22. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/milliegitim/issue/36161/406478
Basar, M., Dogan, C., Sener, N., Karasu, M., & Yurttas, R. (2015). Beginning with open or closed syllable to initial reading and writing process. International Journal of Language Academy, 3(4), 442-452. https://doi.org/10.18033/ijla.340
Basar, M., & Goncu, A. (2018). Clearing misconceptions of primary school teachers’ about learning disabilities and evaluation of teacher opinions. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 33(1), 185-206. https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2017027934
Basar, M., Karasu, M., & Sener, N. (2016). Applied initial reading and writing teaching with sound-based sentence method and cursive handwriting. Altin Kitaplar Publishing.
Bek, H., & Sen, B. (2012). The developmental characteristics of children with learning disabilities. In S. Y. Dogru (Ed.), Learning disability. Egiten Kitap Publishing.
Bienkowski, M., Feng, M., & Means, B. (2012). Enhancing teaching and learning through educational data mining and learning analytics: An issue brief (ED-04- CO-0040, Task 0010). US Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. Retrieved from https://files.eric .ed.gov/fulltext/ED611199.pdf
Bouck, E. C., Chamberlain, C., & Park, J. (2017). Concrete and app-based manipulatives to support students with disabilities with subtraction. Education and Training in autism and Developmental Disabilities, 52(3), 317-331. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/ 26420403
Bucci, M. P. (2021). Visual training could be useful for improving reading capabilities in dyslexia. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 10(3), 199- 208. https://doi.org/10.1080/21622965.2019.1646649
Cardillo, R., Garcia, R. B., Mammarella, I. C., & Cornoldi, C. (2017). Pragmatics of language and theory of mind in children with dyslexia with associated language difficulties or nonverbal learning disabilities. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 7(3), 245-256. https://doi.org/10.1080/21622965.2017.1297946
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitive inquiry & research design choosing among five approaches. SAGE Publications.
Denton, T. F., & Meindl, J. N. (2016). The effect of coloured overlays on reading fluency in individuals with dyslexia. Behavior Analysis in Practice,9(3),191-198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-015-0079-7
Ekwall, E. E., & Shanker, J. L. (1988). Diagnosis and remediation of the disabled reader (3th ed.). Allyn and Bacon.
Firat, T., & Kocak, D. (2018). Investigating the opinions of class teachers’ on the concept of learning difficulty. Journal of Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University Faculty of Education, 18(2), 915-931. https://doi.org/10.17240/aibuefd.2018..-431461
Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2019). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention (2nd edition). The Guilford Press.
Gottwald, S. (2014). The struggle to express themselves: An examination of the relationship of syntactic knowledge to text reading and comprehension . Doctoral Dissertation, Tufts University. Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/ struggle-express-themselves-examination/docview/1551196478/ se-2?accountid=37146
Gupta, A., & Jamal, G. (2006). An Analysis of Reading Errors of Dyslexic Readers in Hindi and English. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, 17(1), 73-86.
Gurbuz, A. (2015). The effect of the six-minute solution on reading fluency . Masters Thesis, Usak University. Retrieved from https://tez.yok .gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/giris.jsp
Harris, E. J., & Sipay, E. R. (1990). How to increase reading ability: A guide to developmental and remedial methods. Longman.
Huettig, F., Lachmann, T., Reis, A., & Petersson, K. M. (2018). Distinguish- ing cause from effect-many deficits associated with developmental dyslexia may be a consequence of reduced and suboptimal reading experience. Language. Cognition and Neuroscience, 33(3), 333-350. https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2017.1348528
Jozwick, S. L., & Douglas, K. H. (2017). Effects of a technology-assisted reading comprehension intervention for English learners with learning disabilities. Reading Horizons: A. Journal of Literacy and Language Arts, 56(2), 42-63. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading_horizons/vol56/iss2/4
Kaur, D., Koval, A., & Chaney, H. (2017). Potential of using ipad as a supplement to teach math to students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 3(1), 114-121. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1126733.pdf
Kusdemir, Y., Kurban, H., & Bulut, P. (2018). Action research concerning a student having difficulty in writing. International Journal of Turkish Literature Culture Education, 7(2), 1190-1209. Retrieved from https:// dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/503697
Lahti, J. M. (2020). Effective and ineffective interventions for students with dyslexia . Masters Thesis, Bethel University. Retrieved from https://spark.bethel.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1377&context=etd
Leseyane, M., Mandende, P., Makgato, M., & Cekiso, M. (2018). Dyslexic learners’ experiences with their peers and teachers in special and mainstream primary schools in North-West Province. African Journal of Disability, 7(0), 363. https://doi.org/10.4102/ajod.v7i0.363
Lin, Y., Zhang, X., Huang, Q., Lv, L., Huang, A., Li, A., ... Huang, Y. (2020). The prevalence of dyslexia in primary school children and their chinese literacy assessment in Shantou, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 17(19), 7140-7140. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197140
Marty, M., & Segal, D. (2015). DSM-5: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. In R. Cautin & S. Lilienfeld (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology (p. 965-970). Wiley-Blackwell.
May, F. B. (1986). Reading as communication: An interactive approach. Merrill Publishing Company.
Mcnulty, M. A. (2003). Dyslexia and the life course. Journal of learning disabilities, 36(4), 363-381. https://doi.org/10.1177/00222194030360040701
Melekoglu, M. A., & Sak, U. (2017). Learning disabilities and giftedness. Pegem Publishing.
Norton, E. S., Beach, S. D., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2015). Neurobi- ology of dyslexia. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 30, 73-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2014.09.007
Opel, A., Ameer, S. S., & Aboud, F. E. (2009). The effect of preschool dialogic reading on vocabulary among rural Bangladeshi children. International Journal of Educational Research, 48(1), 12-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2009.02.008
Pisheh, E. A. G., Sadeghpour, N., Nejatyjahromy, Y., & Nasab, M. M. M. (2017). The effect of cooperative teaching on the development of reading skills among 68 students with reading disorders. Support for Learning, 32(3), 245-266. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9604.12168
Rack, J. P. (1994). Dyslexia: The phonological deficit hypothesis. Dyslexia in children: Multidisciplinary perspectives, 5-37.
Rahmani, P. (2011). The efficacy of narrative therapy and storytelling in reducing reading errors of dyslexic children. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 780-785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.305
Rao, S., Raj, A., Ramanathan, V., Sharma, A., Dhar, M., Thatkar, P. V., & Pal, R. (2017). Prevalence of dyslexia among school children in Mysore. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 6(1), 1-6.
Raskind, W. H. (2001). Current understanding of the genetic basis of reading and spelling disability. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24(3), 141-157. https://doi.org/10.2307/1511240
Razon, N. (1982). Reading Difficulties. Education and Science, 7(39), 19- 29. Retrieved from http://egitimvebilim.ted.org.tr/index.php/EB/article/view/572
Reese, E., Leyva, D., Sparks, A., & Grolnick, W. (2010). Maternal elaborative reminiscing increases low-income children’s narrative skills relative to dialogic reading. Early Education and Development, 21(3), 318-342. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2010.481552
Rello, L., & Bigham, J. P. (2017). Good background colours for readers: A study of people with and without dyslexia. In ASSETS ’17: proceed- ings of the 19th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility. https://doi.org/10.1145/3132525.3132546
Saksida, A., Iannuzzi, S., Bogliotti, C., Chaix, Y., Demonet, J. F., Bricout, L., ... Ramus, F. (2016). Phonological skills, visual attention span, and visual stress in developmental dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 52(10),1503-1516. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000184
Salman, U., Ozdemir, S., Salman, A. B., & Ozdemir, F. (2016). “Dyslexia”, the specific learning difficulty. Demiroglu Science University Florence Nightingale Journal of Medicine, 2(2), 170-176. https://doi.org/10.5606/fng.btd.2016.031
Sarac, S. (2014). Reading difficulties and dyslexia [Review of the book Reading difficulties and dyslexia an interpretation for teachers. Studies in Psychology, 34(1), 71-77. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/404928
Sidekli, S. (2010). An action research: Correcting the fourth grade students’ reading and comprehension problems. Journal of Turkology Research, 27, 563-580.
Snowling, M. J., Duff, F. J., Nash, H. M., & Hulme, C. (2016). Language profiles and literacy outcomes of children with resolving, emerging, or persisting language impairments. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 57(12), 1360-1369. https://doi.org/10.1111/ jcpp.12497
Snowling, M. J., & Melby-Lervag, M. (2016). Oral language deficits in familial dyslexia: A meta-analysis and review. Psychological Bulletin, 142(5),498-545. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000037
Temizkan, M. (2009). Reading education according to text types. Nobel Publishing.
Tetik, G., & Erdogan, N. I. (2017). The effects of dialogic reading on 48-60 months old children’s language development. Kastamonu Education Journal, 25(2), 535-550.
Uccula, A., Enna, M., & Mulatti, C. (2014). Colours, coloured overlays, and reading skills. Frontiers Psychology, 5, 833. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00
Vale, A., Paula, Sucena, A., & Viana, F. (2011). Prevalence of Dyslexia among Children of the 1st Cycle of Basic Education who speak European Portuguese. Lusophone Journal of Education(18), 45-56.
Van Viersen, S., De Bree, E. H., Zee, M., Maassen, B., Van Der Leij, A., & Jong, P. F. (2018). Pathways into literacy: The role of early oral language abilities and family risk for dyslexia. Psychological Science, 29(3), 418-428. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617736886
Van Viersen, S., Kroesbergen, E. H., Slot, E. M., & De Bree, E. H. (2016). High reading skills mask dyslexia in gifted children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(2), 189-199. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219414538517
Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., & Hickman, P. (2003). Response to instruction as a means of identifying students with read- ing/learning disabilities. Exceptional children, 69(4), 391-409. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440290306900401
Wagner, R. K., Zirps, F. A., Edwards, A. A., Wood, S. G., Joyner, R. E., Becker, B. J., ... Beal, B. (2020). The prevalence of dyslexia: A new approach to its estimation. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 53(5), 354- 365. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219420920377
Zoccolotti, P., De Luca, M., Pace, E. D., Gasperini, F., Judica, A., & Spinelli, D. (2005). Word length effect in early reading and in developmental dyslexia. Brain and Language, 93, 369-373. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2004.10.010