Informing Barriers to Classroom Practices with an Assessment Tool: Study on Private Schools Serving Children from Informal Settlements


  • Pallavi Kanungo Research Scholar, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology Rourkela (NITR) Odisha, India.



Classroom practices, Barriers, Private, School, Children, Informal settlement


Classroom practices form an array of integrated teaching and learning strategies conducive to the real world. Lesser is known about the classroom practices experiences among the students belonging to the informal settlements in private schools of India. The paper presents a brief insight into barriers to classroom practices with a self-prepared assessment tool, namely Classroom Practice Position (CPP). It can aid teachers in prioritising practices for balancing participation in the classroom. The measure will help to determine the placement of classroom routine activities. The paper highlights the data from the perspectives of 58 students in Rourkela (a city in the State of Odisha, India) through a sequential exploratory method and data analysis with SPSS v.20. The CPP tool indicates that peer support from the well-performing students helps in mitigating stereotypes, in completion of classwork, identity and familiarity with teachers.


Download data is not yet available.




How to Cite

Kanungo, P. (2023). Informing Barriers to Classroom Practices with an Assessment Tool: Study on Private Schools Serving Children from Informal Settlements. MIER Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices, 13(1), 114–128.





Adu, P. (2019). A step-by-step guide to qualitative data coding (1st ed). Routledge.

Banerjee, M. (2014). Elementary education of the urban poor. Economic and Political Weekly, 49(37), 33.

Banerji, R. (2000). Poverty and primary schooling: Field studies from Mumbai and Delhi. Economic and Political Weekly, 35(10), 795–802. primary-schooling.html

Bennell, P. (2022). Private schooling in sub-Saharan Africa: An egalitarian alternative? International Journal of Educational Development, 88, 102533.

Borgmeier, C., Loman, S. L., & Hara, M. (2016). Teacher self-assessment of evidence-based classroom practices: Preliminary findings across primary, intermediate and secondary level teachers. Teacher Development, 20(1), 40–56.

Connell, R. (1994). Poverty and education. Harvard Educational Review, 64(2), 125–150.

Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. P. L. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (3rd ed). SAGE Publications.

Emmer, E. T., & Gerwels, M. C. (2006). Classroom management in middle and high school classrooms. In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues (pp. 407–437). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Gurl, T. J. (2019). Classroom practices of cooperating teachers and their relationship to collaboration quality and time: Perceptions of student teachers. Teaching Education, 30(2), 177–199.

Hayes, D., Johnston, K., & King, A. (2009). Creating enabling classroom practices in high poverty contexts: The disruptive possibilities of looking in classrooms. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 17(3), 251–264.

Hidlebaugh, J. (1973). A model for developing a teacher performance evaluation system: A multiple appraiser approach (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Iowa State University.

Khasnabis, R., & Chatterjee, T. (2007). Enrolling and retaining slum children in formal schools: A field survey in eastern slums of Kolkata. Economic and Political Weekly, 2091–2098.

Knapp, M. S., Shields, P. M., & Turnbull, B. J. (1995). Academic challenge in high-poverty classrooms. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(10), 770.

Kumar, K. K., & Shukla, T. (2016). Education outcomes and Child's work: A case study of children in slum. Educational Quest- an International Journal of Education and Applied Social Sciences, 7(2), 117–124.

Lin, X., Schwartz, D. L., & Hatano, G. (2005). Toward teachers' adaptive metacognition. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 245–255.

Moore, T., & McArthur, M. (2011). Good for kids: Children who have been homeless talk about school. Australian Journal of Education, 55(2), 147–160.

Mulholland, M., & O'Connor, U. (2016). Collaborative classroom practice for inclusion: Perspectives of classroom teachers and learning support/resource teachers. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20(10), 1070-1083.

Perry, K. E., & Weinstein, R. S. (1998). The social context of early schooling and children's school adjustment. Educational Psychologist, 33(4), 177–194.

Petersson, U. (2012). Kenyan teachers perspectives on working with students from slum areas in Nairobi: A qualitative study (Unpublished Master's Thesis). Linnaeus University.

Rannaware, A., Shaikh, U., Gaidhane, A., Choudhari, S. G., & Zilate, S. (2022). Challenges and barriers for accessing online education amongst school children in an urban slum area of Pune, India. Cureus, 14(9), e29419.

Reinke, W. M., & Herman, K. C. (2016). Bridging the gap: Using the brief student–teacher classroom interaction observation to inform classroom practices. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 42(1), 43–45.

Richards, H. V., Brown, A. F., & Forde, T. B. (2007). Addressing diversity in schools: Culturally responsive pedagogy. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(3), 64–68.

Singh, A. K. (2015). Education of urban children. In the report forgotten voices: The world of urban children in India, PwC, India, 1–188.

Tsimpli, I. M., Vogelzang, M., Balasubramanian, A., Marinis, T., Alladi, S., Reddy, A., & Panda, M. (2020). Linguistic diversity, multilingualism, and cognitive skills: A study of disadvantaged children in India. Languages, 5(1), 10.

Tsujita, Y. (2013). Factors that prevent children from gaining access to schooling: A study of Delhi slum households. International Journal of Educational Development, 33(4), 348–357.

U-DISE. (2016–17). Odisha-elementary education report card, 2016–17. Elementary Education in India: Where do we stand?

United Nations. (2015). The Millennium Development Goals report. United Nations.

Weiner, M. F. (2016). Racialized classroom practices in a diverse Amsterdam primary school: The silencing, disparagement, and discipline of students of colour. Race Ethnicity and Education, 19(6), 1351–1367.

Woodcock, S., Sharma, U., Subban, P., & Hitches, E. (2022). Teacher self-efficacy and inclusive education practices: Rethinking teachers' engagement with inclusive practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 117, 103802.

Yew Tee, M., Samuel, M., Mohd Nor, N. B., V Sathasivam, R. A., & Hutkemri. (2018). Classroom Practice and the Quality of Teaching: Where a Nation is Going? Journal of International and Comparative Education, 7(1), 17–33.